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Multiple jobholding in Europe

AIAS Working Paper Series - Wieteke Conen

Conen, Wieteke (2020), Multiple jobholding in Europe. Structure and dynamics, AIAS-HSI Working Paper 10

Pluriactivity, dual or multiple jobholding, plural or hybrid employment and moonlighting are perhaps the most commonly applied denominations used to gather under a plurality of paid activities workers may be conducting at or around the same time. For a long time, pluriactivity was quite common particularly in rural areas, where for instance small landowners often needed additional activities to survive (Rouault, 2002). Throughout the twentieth century, full-time regular dependent work increased significantly and went hand in hand with technical change favouring capital-intensive, large-scale production, the rise of the ‘Fordist model’ and a change in industrial organization in most countries (Supiot, 2001). Over the past decades, the nature and organisation of work transformed as a result of – amongst others – technological developments and globalisation and have led to more flexible and fragmented labour markets in many advanced economies. The upsurge of alternative arrangements, i.e. economic work under arrangements that differ from full-time regular employment (e.g. Kalleberg et al., 2003; Cappelli & Keller, 2013; Eurofound, 2017) and the blurring boundaries between dependent and independent employment (Vosko, 2006; Kautonen, 2010; Conen & Schippers eds., 2019) are likely to put pluriactivity in a renewed context and analytical position.